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Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2011;4(3):295-306

Original Article
Prostatic acid phosphatase expression in human tissues

Thomas J. Graddis, Catherine J. McMahan, Jennifer Tamman, Keith J. Page, James B. Trager

Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Cell Sciences and Immunology Department, Trubion
Pharmaceuticals, Seattle, WA, USA; Deptartment of Molecular Biology, Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Molecular
Pathology, Asterand UK Ltd, Herts UK; Department of Research, Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA, USA.

Received March 15, 2011; accepted March 21, 2011; Epub March 22, 2011; published March 31, 2011

Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among males in most Western
countries.  Autologous cellular immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer seeks to induce tumor-specific immunity in the patient and is
consequently dependent on a suitable target antigen and effective presentation of that antigen to the patient’s immune system.  Prostatic acid
phosphatase (PAP) has been tested as a target antigen due to its high and apparently specific expression in the prostate.  We used a variety of
approaches to analyze PAP expression, including immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.  We
complemented these laboratory-based techniques with an in silico analysis of reported PAP expression in human cDNA libraries.  Our studies
confirmed that, while PAP expression is not restricted to prostate tissues, its expression in other human tissues is approximately 1-2 orders of
magnitude less than that observed in the prostate.  The relative specificity of PAP expression in the prostate supports its use as a target of
autologous cellular immunotherapy.  The approach described here, involving the use of multiple correlates of tissue-specific expression, is
warranted as a prerequisite in selecting any suitable target for immunotherapy. (IJCEP1103006).

Keywords: Prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate cancer, immunotherapy, immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction

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Address all correspondence to:
James Trager, PhD
Deptartment of Research
Preclinical Development
Dendreon Corporation
3005 First Avenue
Seattle, WA  98121, USA.  
Tel: 206-829-1463; Fax: 206-829-1650