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Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2012;5(3):195-202

Original Article
Expressional evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) protein in urinary
bladder carcinoma patients exposed to cigarette smoke

Arshad Rahmani, Mohammad Alzohairy, Habeeb Khadri, Ashish K Mandal, Moshahid A Rizvi

1Department of Medical laboratory science, College of Applied Medical Sciences,Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of
Pathology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India; 3Department of Bioscienes,  Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India

Received December 15, 2011; accepted February 25, 2012; Epub March 25, 2012; Published March 30, 2012

Abstract: Angiogenesis is a fundamental process in tumor growth and metastasis. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as
prognostic indicator has been documented in many types of human tumors. However, the mechanisms responsible for angiogenesis in
urinary bladder carcinoma patients are not well defined. Certain carcinogens in tobacco cause DNA damage and may produce specific
mutations. In order to investigate the relationship between tobacco smoking, altered patterns of VEGF expression and apoptosis, we have
analyzed a group of 125 incident patients with transitional cell carcinoma and 100 cases of control with inflammatory lesions of the bladder. We
assessed VEGF overexpression by the use of anti- VEGF antibody through immunohistochemistry, and apoptosis by TUNEL Assay.
Expression of VEGF and apoptosis was noticed in 43.2% and 52.8% cases respectively. Both VEGF and apoptosis increased with increasing
tumor grade. Apoptosis was seen to be significantly higher in both sexes in the age group of ≥ 50 years (p<0.05) but expression of VEGF was
significantly higher among males in the age group of ≥ 50 years (p<0.05). We observed an insignificant association between cigarettes
smoking and VEGF overexpression (p>0.05) and significant association with apoptosis. These data support the hypothesis that certain
carcinogens derived from cigarette smoking may induce VEGF mutations and apoptosis which in turn are involved in early steps of bladder
carcinogenesis. (IJCEP1112005

Keywords: Bladder cancer, apoptosis and cigarette smoking, IHC, TUNEL Assay

Address all correspondence to:
Dr. Arshad Rahmani
Department of Medical Laboratory science
College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
E-mail: rehmani.arshad@gmail.com