IJCEP Copyright © 2007-All rights reserved.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol 1(5): 440-447;2008

Original Article
Cardiac Mitochondrial Membrane Stability after Deep Hypothermia using a Xenon
Clathrate Cryostasis Protocol – an Electron Microscopy Study

Sergey Sheleg, Hugh Hixon, Bruce Cohen, David Lowry and Mikhail Nedzved

IBPT LLC, Scottsdale, AZ, USA; School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA and Pathology Department, Minsk State
Medical School, Minsk, Republic of Belarus

Received 21 Oct 2007; accepted with revision 12 Nov 2007; available online 1 January 2008

Abstract: We investigated a new cryopreservation method using xenon, a clathrate-forming gas, under medium pressure (100psi). The
objective of the study was to determine whether this cryostasis protocol could protect cardiac mitochondria at cryogenic temperatures (below
100 degrees Celsius).We analyzed transmission electron microscopy images to obtain information about changes in mitochondrial
morphology induced by cryopreservation of the hearts. Our data showed absence of mitochondrial swelling, rupture of inner and outer
membranes, and leakage of mitochondrial matrix into the cytoplasm after applying this cryostasis protocol. The electron microscopy results
provided the first evidence that a cryostasis protocol using xenon as a clathrate-forming gas under pressure may have protective effects on
intracellular membranes. This cryostasis technology may find applications in developing new approaches for long-term cryopreservation
protocols. (IJCEP710007).

Key Words:  Electron microscopy, cardiac tissue, mitochondria, cryopreservation, cryostasis, xenon, high pressure, clathrates, vitrification,
tissue banking, organ banking

Full Text  PDF

Address all correspondence to: Sergey V. Sheleg, MD, IBPT LLC, Scottsdale, Arizona 85266, Email: Sergey.Sheleg@asu.edu