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Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2(2), 119-131;2009

Review Article
A Practical and Comprehensive Immunohistochemical Approach to the Diagnosis of
Superficial Soft Tissue Tumors

Wael Al-Daraji, Ehab Husain, Bettena G Zelger and Bernhard Zelger

School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Division of Pathology, Queen’s Medical Centre, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK

Received 13 March 2008; Accepted in revision 23 April 2008; Available online 10 June 2008

Abstract: Soft tissue tumors include neoplasms of specific and unknown lineages, and, therefore, lineage markers of smooth muscle, skeletal
muscle, endothelial, epithelial and Schwann cells have proven useful in everyday practice. However, groups of tumors remain that are defined
essentially on grounds of histology; others can be defined by molecular genetic studies. The complex distribution patterns of many antigens
and loss of some differentiation antigens in malignant tumors often necessitate the use of panels of antibodies. Optimally such panels should
address all significant differential diagnostic alternatives. There is little doubt that numerous new differentiation markers will appear in the
future. The evaluation of tumor proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle control will give new information related to tumor biology and prognosis.

Key Words: Soft tissue tumors, skin, immunohistochemistry

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Address all correspondence to: Dr Wael Al-Daraji, School of Molecular Medical Sciences, Division of Pathology, Queen’s medical Centre,
Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK. Email: