Original Article Localization of West Nile Virus in monkey brain: double staining antigens immunohistochemically of neurons, neuroglia cells and West Nile Virus
Xianli He, Junping Ren, Fangling Xu, Monique R. Ferguson, Guangyu Li
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases; Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555; Department of Surgery, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China 710038.
Received October 5, 2009; Accepted October 28, 2009; Available online November 15, 2009
Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) can cause encephalitis or meningitis that affects brain tissue, which can also lead to permanent neurological damage that can be fatal. To our knowledge, no consistent double immunohistochemical staining of neurons, neuroglia cells, and WNV has yet been reported. To establish a method for performing double-label immunohistochemical detection of neurons, neuroglia cells and WNV, examining the pathological characteristics of WNV-infected neurons, neuroglia cells, and investigating distribution of WNV in monkey brain, paraffin-embedded monkey brain tissue were retrospectively studied by immunohistochemical staining of neurons, neuroglia cells and WNV. Antibodies against neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and WNV were used to develop the method of double- label immunohistochemical staining, which allowed independent assessment of neuron status and WNV distribution. A range of immunohistochemical WNV infection in monkey brain was observed in both neurons and neuroglia cells in terms of the thickness of lesion staining, and the WNV staining was slightly higher in neuroglia cells than in neurons. All these findings suggest that WNV invasion in the brain plays a crucial role in neurological damage by inducing central nervous system (CNS) cell dysfunction or cell death directly. (IJCEP909004).
Key words: West Nile virus (WNV), encephalitis, meningitis, double immunohistochemical staining, neurons, neuroglia
Address all correspondence to: Guangyu Li, PhD Department of Internal Medicine Division of Infectious Diseases University of Texas Medical Branch 301 University Boulevard Galveston, TX 77555-0435 Telephone: (409) 747-0275; fax (409) 772-6527 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org